Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.It is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.
Gestational DM is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of DM develop high blood sugar levels.